Fasteners and base material
Heavy-duty anchor Guidebook – Part 1
In the first part, read why the base material is one of the most important factors for determining the suitable fastener.
In addition to the own weight of the system to be fastened and the loads to be applied, the base material is one of the most important factors in determining the suitable fastener. In this article we would like to talk about the different mineral base materials.
What material is the base material made of?In the construction industry, we encounter different options as base material. In addition to the natural building material wood, wood-based materials or metallic materials such as steel or aluminium, there are a large number of mineral building materials. The latter are inorganic, non-metallic building materials made of crystalline components. The components play an important role because the gross densities and strengths depend on them.
The most important mineral building materials in the base material
ConcreteConcrete is a mineral building material made from a mixture of cement, additive and water. As long as concrete is still processable, we speak of "fresh concrete", during the hardening phase it is called "green concrete" and when it reaches the nominal strength it is "hardened concrete".
Concrete is one of the most widely used building materials worldwide and the first choice for industrial buildings due to its high compressive strength. In residential buildings it is mainly found in foundations, support elements, ceilings and stair elements.
When using fastening elements, however, it is essential to pay attention to whether it is cracked or non-cracked concrete.
MasonryMasonry-brickwork is a component made of natural or artificial stones. There are many different kinds of bricks. The characteristic of the stone (e.g. gross density, binding agent, compressive strength) is decisive for the choice of fastening elements. If it is not known which stone the masonry is made of, pull-out tests are necessary to determine the load-carrying capacity of the surface. Trial drilling and the resulting drilling dust already provide initial insights into the type of stone.
Frequently used stones in masonry are:
- Solid bricks
Solid bricks are a classic in masonry. They are used in house facades and for partition in industrial complexes. Especially in old buildings we find load-bearing walls made of this brick.
- Sand-lime bricks
Due to their high gross density and accuracy to size, sand-lime bricks are often used as brick siding. In addition to sound insulation, they also perform optical functions. In industrial construction they are used in large-format plan stones.
- Perforated bricks
Perforated bricks are also classic bricks. They are preferably used in constructions that require a certain level of thermal insulation, such as in private house and apartment construction.
- Natural stones
Stones made of granite, basalt, lime or sand are natural stones that have completely different properties, such as hardness. We often find natural stone as brick siding or in historical buildings as a foundation or base.
Lightweight building materialsLightweight building materials are building and raw materials that have a comparatively low gross density. They usually consist of light, porous inorganic materials such as pumice and expanded clay.
Due to the porous properties, the weight of the stones is low. This offers great advantages in handling and processing. They also have good thermal insulating properties. In terms of sound insulation, however, they perform worse than solid building materials.
Despite their low weight, some lightweight materials can be used in load-bearing structures. Hollow pumice blocks or large aerated concrete plan stones are particularly popular in private house and apartment construction. Small-format lightweight masonry stones made from pumice or aerated concrete are often found in non-load-bearing partition walls.